Marcos Lopez de Prado, Tudor, Mar 2012, here.
Faster traders are nothing new:
–Nathan Rothschild is said to have used racing pigeons to trade in advance on the news of Napoleon’s defeat at Waterloo.
–Beginning in 1850s, only a limited number of investors had access to telegraphy.
–The telephone (1875), radio (1915), and more recently screen trading (1986) offered speed advantages to some participants over others.
–Leinweber  relates many instances in which technological breakthroughs have been used to most investors’ disadvantage. So … what is new this time?
High Frequency Trading Literature Review, May 2012, here.
Erica Klarreich, Simons Foundation, Getting Into Shapes: From Hyperbolic Geometry to Cube Complexes and Back, Oct 2012, here.
Finally, in March, Ian Agol, of the University of California at Berkeley, electrified the mathematics community by announcing a proof to “Wise’s conjecture,” which settled the last four of Thurston’s questions in one stroke.
Mathematicians are calling the result the end of an era.
“The vision of three-manifolds that Thurston articulated in his paper, which must have looked quite fantastic at the time, has now been completely realized,” said Danny Calegari, of the California Institute of Technology. “His vision has been remarkably vindicated in every way: every detail has turned out to be correct.”